Category: Network & Server (網絡及服務器)

Equallogic Alert: Raid Battery Failed

By admin, July 14, 2013 22:17

Well, it’s about time, battery normally last for 3 years, this is the first time I encountered such error and the 2nd time EQL went wrong, the first time was due to a failed disk.

event: 28.4.31
time: Sun Jul 14 21:43:29 2013
NVRAM battery failed. Power failure could result in loss of data.

Critical health conditions exist.
Correct immediately before they affect array operation.
NVRAM battery failed and must be replaced.


There are 1 outstanding health conditions. Correct these conditions before they affect array operation.

Active control module cache is now in write-through mode. Array performance is degraded.

Note the Write Latency shoots up right away because Write Back Mode is disabled although you can force to use Write Back mode.

Called Dell Pro-Support, will replace by tomorrow, cause I don’t feel doing it tonight.

Update: 7/15/2013

Dell’s engineer came to the site this afternoon and fixed the problem within 5 minutes, simply swapped out the active controller card (where NVRAM battery failed), and almost right away the standby controller kicked in, I noticed only 2 ping were lost in both grpadmin and vm IP address during the controller switch over. Finally the engineer said I’m probably the first one in Hong Kong who had a battery failed in EQL, most of the problems are related to disk, the power supply, then controller card.

I can’t think of any reason anyone don’t like this kind of high redundancy with easy maintenance built in mind! Bravo! Equallogic!


Firefox Issue: Equallogic Group Manager Applet Doesn’t Work Properly After Upgrade to Java 7 Update 25

By admin, June 28, 2013 15:25

The EQL GM Java Applet stays as blank screen for about 2 minutes and then throws an exception as shown in the picture below, simply ignore the error then group manager login screen will appear agin. This problem doesn’t occur if I launch the EQL GM in web browser, strange!

Seemed quite a few having the same problem on Dell’s EQL forum after upgrading to Java 7 Update 25, Yes, we selected to upgrade because there is a serious security hole in Java 6.


This is the warning showing in Firefox Add-On Page.


The other problem is after I clean the Java Cache, my EQL Group Manager icon on desktop has also gone, does anyone know how to recreate such icon? I don’t want to re-install HIT for Windows again just for getting the icon back for sure. :)

Is 7,200 RPM NL-SAS Really Reliable? Think Again!

By admin, June 27, 2013 08:11

Just received an alert from Equallogic this morning regarding hard disk firmware update.

Dell has made improvements in the drive error handling routines of EqualLogic array firmware over the course of the last few years and has worked closely with its drive manufacturers to improve the error handling routines of the hard drives.

We have released the newest version of hard disk drive firmware, EC04, for the below listed 7200RPM based 1TB, and 2TB drives shipped on the PS4100E, PS6100E, PS6110E, and the PS6110E arrays

  • Toshiba 7200 RPM NL-SAS MK1001TRKB (1 TB)
  • Toshiba 7200 RPM NL-SAS MK2001TRKB (2 TB)

If you are using arrays with these drives, Dell strongly recommends that you update the hard disk drive firmware.

I recall I’ve received the same kind of alert at least 3-4 times regarding 7,200 RPM SATA/NL-SAS firmware update in the past 3 years and none for SAS. Worst many users reported frequent 7,200 RPM disks failure or false positive. In additional, past EQL’s firmware updates constantly indicate there were problems with error detection or false positive of the 7,200 RPM disks. So I think this does provide you a clear picture how reliable those slower disks can be. Now with disks moving into 4TB each, I don’t think it’s pleasant scenario to see one of these failed.

The good thing is Equallogic is always working closely with the disk vendor to improve its reliability over the years. That’s why we see Improved “hard drive monitoring intelligence with an advanced predictive reliability algorithm” has been built into it’s latest firmware again.

We have released recommended software updates for EqualLogic PS Series Arrays: Firmware versions 6.0.5 and 5.2.9, which include key maintenance fixes.
Notably, the v6.0.5 release includes recent improvements to hard drive monitoring intelligence with an advanced predictive reliability algorithm. This algorithm is designed to help preserve overall system reliability and long-term performance by proactively identifying drives which are at risk for failure, copying their data, and allowing you to safely replace them. In a small percentage of storage arrays, this process will occur shortly after the array firmware is updated. More details are included in the release notes. Version 6.0.5 also removes a false error warning that appeared on some arrays following drive replacement, and includes other fixes.

We recommend that you move to the v6 firmware stream and adopt v6.0.5. However, for customers staying on the 5.x code stream, we have released v5.2.9 which includes the drive reliability algorithm mentioned above and additional fixes.

Leftover Trojan Can’t be Removed?

By admin, June 16, 2013 12:16

Recently, I encountered some trojan asp scripts that cannot be removed, finally found it’s related to Windows folder name restriction, clever! but how did the hacker able to create those in the first place?

The other thing is I sensed more and more DDOS and Antispam mail is sending from the hidden PHP scripts these days, it’s becoming harder to catch them.

网站被放置了许多木马文件 nul.asp ,怎么也删除不了,提示 无法删除 nul; 参数不正确 ,正郁闷的时候找到了原因以及删除方法。

我的网站就是FCK文件夹下被放了两个nul.asp,于是在cmd dos下删除了它。

Microsoft Windows [版本 5.2.3790]
(C) 版权所有 1985-2003 Microsoft Corp.

C:\Documents and Settings\BEN>del \\.\D:\wwwroot\FCKeditor\editor\filemanager

C:\Documents and Settings\BEN>del \\.\D:\wwwroot\FCKeditor\editor\css\images\

C:\Documents and Settings\BEN>
Windows 下不能够以下面这些字样来命名文件/文件夹,包括:“aux”“com1”“com2”“prn”“con”和“nul”等,因为这些名字都属于设备名称

,等价于一个 DOS 设备,如果我们把文件命名为这些名字,Windows 就会误以为发生重名,所以会提示“不能创建同名的文件”等等。
当然,有一些特殊的方法可以偷机取巧,建立以这些设备名为名的文件夹,比如我们在命令提示符下执行“md C:\aux\\”,就在 C 盘建了一个名叫

aux 的文件夹。此文件夹虽然可以访问,也可以建立子文件夹,但却无法删除,因为 Windows 不允许以这种方式删除设备。在系统看来,这个 aux

那么,如何删除这样的文件/文件夹呢?我们只要按照完整的 UNC 路径格式,就是网上邻居的路径格式,正确输入文件路径及文件名即可。比如要删

除 C 盘下的 aux 文件夹,可在命令提示符下执行:rd /s \\.\C:\aux,rd 是命令提示符删除文件夹的命令,/s 参数表示从所有子目录删除指定文


再比如要删除 C 盘 temp 文件夹下的 nul.exe 文件,在命令提示符下执行:del \\.\C:\temp\nul.exe 即可。


Interesting Post: Why Equallogic Doesn’t Support Active-Active Controllers

By admin, May 15, 2013 19:29

Saw this interesting post today, almost dated a year ago.

Q: Why does EqualLogic not support having active/active controllers?
A: This is a very good question. EqualLogic runs the active and passive controllers connected by a thick I/O pipe that effectively maintains the passive controller as a mirror of the active controller, this allows for near instantaneous failover in the event of a RAID controller failure – there is no need for the controller having to seize ownership of the failed controllers disks. This is supported by write cache mirroring and the write cache is cached to flash memory.

Note: The process of controller failover uses MAC spoofing and needs portfast and rapid spanning tree enabled on switches.
Q: Does EqualLogic support a Thin Provisioned LUN Space Reclaimer?
A: Not yet, this is in the pipeline.

Also came across this reply in Dell’s Forum.

Some terminology might be helpful here. Equallogic embeds their controller/filer/and disk shelves into one unit. The controllers are active/passive meaning only one controller is ever usable. The filer itself is tied directly to the disks. Other vendors handle this in different ways. Dell has chosen with the Equallogic system to do this.

Some vendors implement “raid” across the filers themselves (HP LeftHand’s network raid). Other vendors offer active/active controllers, or NetApp metrocluster functionality. Dell Equallogic does not.

We operate three Equallogic arrays in production use, and have never suffered a controller failure. When we preform firmware updates the unit reboots twice, taking it offline for 15 seconds. We do this during ‘quiet’ activity hours on our VMware, SQL Server, and Exchange clusters. They seem to handle the 15 second downtime without issue.

We have not seen the Active/Passive controller layout of the Dell Equallogic as a negative. The failure of an entire Equallogic filer (both controllers and both power supplies) is extremely extremely rare. There are no shared components between the controllers, they are functionally separate filers. The unit is right-sized for our organization and provides enterprise functionality at a fraction of the cost of a similar product that wold allow Active/Active enterprise level controllers, or Metrocluster functionality.

In summary:
> Dell Equallogic does not allow Active/Active Controllers, or full ‘raid’ between discrete units.
> Dell does not offer ‘Metrocluster’ or ‘Network Raid’ functionality like DRDB.
> Reboots of the entire SAN take 15 seconds (yes, really, as a customer, not Dell marketing) and do not cause any issue for us.

Protect Your WordPress with Limit Login Attemps Plugin

By admin, May 14, 2013 12:00

With the increasing popularity of my blog, I found more and more brutal force attack on WP admin login page. Today, I discovered a niche tool that actually does a bit of protection from this kind of automatic bot attack, of course, it won’t stop an experience hacker from trying.

IP                  Tried to log in as admin (4 lockouts) administrator (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout) administrator (1 lockout) administrator (2 lockouts) admin (1 lockout), administrator (2 lockouts), support (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout), administrator (1 lockout), support (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout) administrator (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout) administrator (1 lockout) administrator (1 lockout) admin (1 lockout), administrator (1 lockout)

OpenStack, An Alternative to VMware and Hyper-V?

By admin, May 10, 2013 09:39

In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched a new open source cloud initiative known as OpenStack. The mission of the OpenStack project was to enable any organization to create and offer cloud computing services running on standard hardware. The community’s first official release, code-named Austin, was made available just four months later with plans to release regular updates of the software every few months. The early code comes from NASA’s Nebula platform as well as Rackspace’s Cloud Files platform. Early on in the history of the project, Ubuntu [9] Linux distribution decided to adopt OpenStack.

Just read about this new jargon, very interesting indeed as OpenStack was initiated by a leading web hosting company in US and there is an extremely self-conceited man in China who said that he will replace VMware with OpenStack within a year…Gosh!

Beyond Five Nines 99.999% Availability with Dell Compellent

By admin, May 5, 2013 11:15

Five nines or 99.999% availability standard (5.26 mins downtime per year) has its origins in the telecom industry. It characterizes the technical capabilities of an individual system. It does not characterize the capability of an organization to use the technology to meet its goals. To measure the impact of technology on an organization requires consideration of the entire IT environment and its effectiveness as a whole in providing access to data.


Dell Compellent: Going beyond five nines

By virtualizing physical resources, Dell Compellent Storage Center achieves a higher level of abstraction that overcomes the limitations of traditional storage, allowing you to perform routine management and maintenance without taking down the applications users rely on to keep business moving.

At Dell, we’re addressing data accessibility issues with a 24×7x365 mentality. The Dell Compellent family offers 99.999% availability1 by the standard measure, but we go beyond the concept of five nines. We take planned data downtime into consideration in our approach to building our hardware, the technologies behind our software and in our unique, award-winning support.

Building high availability into hardware

The foundation of continuous data availability is based on a hardware environment in which users can access the data during activities that traditionally require downtime, both unplanned and planned.
Dell removes the potential for a single point of failure from the whole environment rather than merely moving that single point of failure around within the environment. Our approach is to provide a hardware environment in which accessing data uses no shared components.

Clustering dual storage controllers with no shared backplanes or midplanes, and then connecting that fully redundant cluster to storage devices in a multi-loop or multi-chain configuration, provides redundancy at all points and allows for a hardware environment that is highly available. Providing reliability and redundancy in components most likely to fail—power supplies, fans, spinning disk drives—contributes to this infrastructure of availability. Wherever possible, components are designed to be hot swappable, eliminating downtime for maintenance and repair.

Data management traditionally requires planned downtime. Virtualization can help change that. Dell Compellent virtualizes storage at the drive level, enabling you to create high performance, highly efficient virtual volumes in seconds, without allocating drives to specific servers and without complicated capacity planning and performance tuning. Read/write operations are spread across all drives in your virtualized pool of storage, so multiple requests are processed in parallel, accelerating data access.

In addition, you can change and scale your virtualized storage dynamically without disruption or downtime. Start with a single controller, add a second controller, join the two into a cluster, all while allowing access to the data. Add drives and drive enclosures, replace fans and power supplies—even go inside a controller and replace interface cards to upgrade or fix hardware issues, with your data accessible to users all the while.

A hardware environment built on this blueprint can keep data accessible during activities that traditionally had a negative impact on business, and keep the organization moving forward.

Building high availability into software Software

that contributes to data availability includes automated data placement, virtualization, and data protection solutions. Again, the Dell Compellent approach is holistic, and focused on keeping data optimally accessible for users—in any circumstance, and at every stage in its lifecycle.

Dell Compellent storage software features built-in automation that optimizes the provisioning, placement and protection of data throughout its lifecycle. For example, storage tiering enables an organization to keep data available cost effectively. Data Progression, Dell Compellent’s patented tiering technology, automatically classifies and migrates data to the optimum storage tier and RAID level based on actual usage. As shown below, all new data is written to Tier 1, RAID 10 and snapshots cascade to the lowest available tier within 24 hours. Then, the most active blocks of data remain on high-performance drives, while less active blocks automatically move to lower-cost, high-capacity drives. Under this approach, your storage is optimally utilized, data is easily recoverable and users and applications have fast access to the data they need.


Dell Compellent automated tiered storage dynamically classifies and migrates data to the optimum tier based on frequency of access.

Another way Dell Compellent builds high availability into storage software is Dell Compellent Data Instant Replay, sometimes referred to in the industry as “snapshot technology” or “continuous data protection.” A Replay is similar to a snapshot in that it captures a point-in-time copy of data; however, it has intelligence that lets you access read-only data without having to make a copy of that data. You can take continuous, space-efficient snapshots to speed local recovery of lost or deleted files. Once an initial snapshot of a volume is taken, only incremental changes in the data need to be captured. Every Replay is a readable and writable volume that is automatically stored on lower-cost drives, and can be used to recover any size volume to any server in less than 10 seconds.

Remote Instant Replay leverages Replays between local and remote sites for cost-effective disaster recovery and business continuity solutions. After initial site synchronization, only incremental changes in data are replicated on an ongoing basis, cutting hardware, bandwidth and administration costs. You can replicate over Fibre Channel or native IP as your business requires.

Dell Compellent Live Volume, enables dynamic business continuity by letting you move storage volumes between Dell Compellent arrays on demand. All migration occurs transparently while applications remain online. Live Volume functionality is fully integrated in the Dell Compellent platform and requires no additional hardware, server agents or costly appliances. It supports any virtualized server environment and complements leading virtual machine movement engines.


將Windows Server 2012當Desktop來用

By admin, May 5, 2013 10:36

因為w2k12繼續可以用OEM SLP Activate的原因,所以很多PC發燒友將w2k12當w2k8來用

但是轉換過程原來好鬼麻煩,乾脆放棄,Desktop還是用回Wiondows 7 Pro算數。

人才是資安防護最脆弱的一環 (轉文)

By admin, May 1, 2013 11:40

From iThome Taiwan




駭客可以遠端遙控這些被感染的電腦,暗中蒐集企業內部資料,並將這些資料傳送給第一波攻擊所使用的操縱伺服器(C&C Server)。






駭客入侵企業使用者常瀏覽的網站,利用ActiveX漏洞植入惡意程式,一旦企業使用者瀏覽被入侵的網站,電腦就被惡意程式感染。駭客利用被感染的電腦,將企業內部資料傳送給第一波攻擊所使用的操縱伺服器(C&C Server)。駭客利用C&C伺服器下載更多惡意程式,用來掃描企業內部的防毒中控伺服器或是資料庫伺服器,有哪些可利用的漏洞。確認可利用的漏洞後,駭客利用受感染的使用者電腦連接第二波攻擊所使用的C&C伺服器。駭客利用防毒中控伺服器的漏洞,將原先要派送的更新檔置換成惡意程式。企業內部的防毒中控伺服器自動派送惡意程式,造成4萬8千多臺電腦到破壞,服務中斷。








駭客還會暗中下載了側錄程式來監控IT人員電腦,取得更新檔伺服器(Patch Management Server)的管理者帳號密碼,藉此大量派送惡意程式,造成大規模的破壞。這突顯了,IT人員因為身分特殊,擁有許多重要系統的管理權限,更應該提高警覺心,不該亂開啟來路不明的信件。





依據盧森堡Zataz資安網站技術長Eric Romang彙總各資安業者的分析樣本後,他依用途將惡意程式分成4大類,分別包括了Wipe清除惡意程式、Drop&Wipe(下載與清除)惡意程式、Drop&Wipe&Deface(下載、清除與網頁置換)惡意程式,最後一種是Drop&Backdoor(下載與開後門)惡意程式。





駭客先入侵企業內部的病毒碼更新主機,如這次遭駭的AhnLab Policy Center資安政策管理平臺,以及Hauri ViRobot ISMS資安管理平臺。然後駭客再利用更新病毒檔的正常管道,將惡意程式傳送到企業裏的每一臺個人電腦或伺服器上。



另外Eric Romang表示,許多IT管理人員不一定會即時更新遠端連線工具的版本,駭客就可以利用舊版連線工具的弱點來竊取連線密碼。

例如2011年時國外資安部落格Cosine Security就揭漏mRemote採用的加密方式不夠嚴謹,所以2012年開始就沒有推出新版本;或是舊版SecureCRT也被發現有弱點,加密後的密碼可被破解,得更新到最新版本才能無虞。像SecureCRT 7.0.3,也就是最新版本,目前還沒有密碼被成功解密的記錄。

Eric Romang還模擬了另一種竊取連線授權的方法,是透過偷取驗證私密金鑰的手法,就算不知道連線密碼,還是能成功進入遠端主機執行派送工作。

像SecureCRT除了可使用帳號密碼登入之外,還可以使用SSH私鑰(Private SSH Key)的連線驗證方式,來存取遠端連線伺服器。

若IT人為了省事,建立遠端連線SSH私鑰(Private SSH Key)時,沒有強制u設定使用私鑰連線時要搭配輸入管理密碼,惡意程式只要搜尋硬碟找出私鑰檔案,駭客不需要花時間破解密碼,就能用這個私鑰登入遠端伺服器。





這次事件被駭淪陷的防毒更新主機軟體包括韓國防毒軟體廠商AhnLab(安博士)的AhnLab Policy Center資安政策管理平臺,以及另一家防毒軟體公司ViRobot的資安管理平臺Hauri ViRobot ISMS。


緊接著,惡意程式再透過PhysicalDrive指令存取硬碟主開機記錄(Master Boot Record,MBR),以「PRINCPES」、「HASTATI」和「PR!NCPES」等字元複寫電腦MBR(Master Boot Records),McAfee表示,惡意程式還會破壞檔案系統,造成硬碟內的資料無法恢復。

不過,若是使用者作業系統版本為Windows Vista以上,惡意程式則會找出硬碟內所有資料,填入0,雖然資料仍存在,但毫無意義。

惡意程式完成MBR破壞之後,便執行關機指令shutdown -r -t 0,使用者電腦因MBR毀損而無法重新啟動。























3月20日,下午兩點,韓國KBS電視臺的上千名員工紛紛發現正在使用的個人電腦突然關機,而且重新開機後螢幕一片漆黑,只跳出一行字「ErrorCode 8002: Invalid MBR」,意味著這臺電腦的硬碟開機磁區已經損毀了。不只KBS如此,韓國另外兩家電視臺MBC和YTN也同樣在2點前後有大批個人電腦當機,這個消息隨後就登上了韓國電視新聞。




韓國總統聽取簡報後,也啟動了國家危機管控機制,將這次攻擊視為國家級的戰爭行為,韓國國防部也因此提高了「情報作戰防禦態勢」等級,從4級提升到3級。趨勢科技表示,這是韓國史上最大規模的駭客攻擊。甚至有不少韓國資安業者將這次事件稱為「韓國黑暗日」(Dark Korea),來形容當天韓國多項金融服務與電視媒體停擺的狀態。

根據韓國放送通信委員會KCC(相當臺灣NCC)初步調查,這是一波大規模的APT(Advanced Persistent Threat,先進持續性威脅)攻擊,第一時間的初步統計,受害電腦,包括個人電腦、ATM電腦和伺服器等數量高達32,000臺,在4月10日發布的期中調查報告更發現,累計的受駭電腦數量更是達到48,700臺。


雖然這幾家銀行大多在3月20日當天事發後1~2小時就能開始恢復局部營運,但是為了搶救系統,這幾家銀行紛紛被迫將營業時間延後到當天下午6時。隔天21日,仍有部分電視臺網路受損還未復原,而農協銀行也有16間分行尚未恢復,一直要到事發後的第四天,也就是3月24日下午6點,農協銀行才完全恢復營運,並開始採取更多防護措施。若要修復所有受損的個人電腦,甚至清查掃毒等措施,長期派駐韓國首爾的資安公司FireEye亞太及日本區公共事業部區經理Gene Casady預估,這幾家企業至少需要一個禮拜才能完全恢復。



臺灣McAfee技術經理沈志明表示,在第一波攻擊中當機損害的電腦被植入了惡意程式,這些惡意軟體原本處在睡眠狀態,但是被設定於2013年3月20日下午2點時啟動發動攻擊。惡意軟體被喚醒後,會先確認電腦目前作業系統的版本,判斷是否為Windows作業系統的版本,接著損壞硬碟主要開機記錄,以「PRINCPES」、「HASTATI」和「PR!NCPES」字元複寫電腦主要開機磁區MBR(Master Boot Records),接著執行Windows的關機指令shutdown -r -t 0。這些受害的電腦關機後,因為開機磁區已被修改,因此就無法開機。

惡意程式不只攻擊Windows個人電腦,也會攻擊Solaris Linux伺服器,以及Sun OS、AIX或HP-UX等Unix系統的伺服器,這類非Windows主機大多負責執行企業的重要系統。趨勢科技在官網部落格表示,惡意程式同樣會先嘗試刪除伺服器的開機磁區,若無法得逞則會刪除系統核心目錄,如/kernel、/usr、/etc、/home等系統運作必要目錄的檔案。不只造成伺服器當機,甚至會刪除伺服器內的應用系統資料,就有一家韓國企業的甲骨文資料庫因此而損壞。

Gene Casady表示,這起攻擊事件能在同一時間造成數萬臺電腦當機,是因為駭客使了一個罕見的手法。駭客先入侵企業內部的病毒碼更新主機,再利用更新病毒檔的正常管道,將惡意程式傳送到企業裏的每一臺個人電腦或伺服器上。因為企業信賴這些更新主機,因此不會阻擋派送出來的程式,甚至沒有再多一道安全檢查就直接放行。駭客也就利用這個企業毫無防備的弱點,將惡意程式直接送進企業裏,並且讓每臺電腦都安裝了惡意程式,等到攻擊行動時間一到就自動啟動。


被駭淪陷的防毒更新主機軟體包括韓國防毒軟體廠商AhnLab(安博士)的AhnLab Policy Center資安政策管理平臺,以及另一家防毒軟體公司ViRobot的資安管理平臺HAURI ViRobot ISMS,這兩套都可以用來派送防毒更新程式,或是遠端管理企業內部電腦,但最終都被駭客當成跳板來攻擊企業內部的電腦。


面對這種新的攻擊模式,Gene Casady認為,就算是已經部署網頁過濾防護,也難以抵擋這種攻擊,因為企業會把病毒更新主機、弱點修補更新主機,都列為安全的白名單,一旦駭客的惡意程式潛入了企業內網後,循此管道入侵,根本不會被攔截。


在4月10日,韓國科學與資訊科技未來規畫部(Ministry of Science ICT and Future Planning,MSIP)代表民官軍聯合應變小組,發布了320駭客事件期中調查報告,揭露了更多精心策畫的攻擊入侵手法。



甚至韓國資安專家社群IssueMakersLab比對更早之前的惡意程式散播行為、Botnet 殭屍網路感染手法特徵、加密機制、程式碼慣用寫法等特徵,推論這次320韓國黑暗日的攻擊,是同一個駭客組織持續6年精心布局,長期潛伏,匿蹤窺探企業弱點後所發動的組織性網路戰爭,才能夠一次就造成如此大規模的設備癱瘓。IssueMakersLab成員Simon Choi表示:「精心策畫的網路戰爭已經出現在韓國了!」










星展銀行拒絕讓Administrator帳號成為Super User,擁有最高存取權限。他說,為了避免高權限Administrator帳號遭竊,導致企業內部安全失守,星展銀行嚴格限制使用者權限,例如,有權限開設帳號的人,就不具系統存取權限,區隔特權使用者與功能使用者的角色與職權。





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